Ciprofloxacin (Cipro and Levaquin) impairs mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication through inhibition of Topoisomerase 2, altering mtDNA topological homeostasis.
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro and Levaquin), a fluoroquinolone, is the third most commonly used antibiotic, and inhibits mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) synthesis, affecting cellular growth and differentiation. It does this by inhibiting the mtDNA’s ability to relax from a supercoiled state or mtDNA topology. Topology is the ability to twist, bend or coil. mtDNA topology homeostasis (equilibrium) is required for proper gene expression, which controls a cells ability to replicate and differentiate.
Note: Fluoroquinolones have fluoride as a central part of the drug. Fluoride is a known neurotoxin, and drugs with an attached fluoride allow them to penetrate more effectively through cell membranes and very sensitive tissues like the blood-brain-barrier.
The severe side effects of ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones include “tendinopathies” such as TENDON RUPTURE, JOINT INFLAMMATION, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES, EPILEPSY and psychological symptoms such as DEPRESSION, possibly due to enhanced oxidative stress. The reduction in overall mtDNA and mitochondrial transcription (copying a gene’s DNA sequence) caused by the altered topology of mtDNA might result in severe dysregulation of the electron transport chain’s (ETC) protein complexes, leading to (ECT) dysfunction, reduced ATP (energy) production and causing the observed enhanced oxidative stress (above pathologies).
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Ciprofloxacin (Cipro and Levaquin) has also been reported to interfere with spermatogenesis, brain development, bone mineralization, as well as to induce renal toxicity and heart arrhythmia. While the molecular mechanisms of these adverse effects are yet unclear, mitochondria play a central role in all of these physiological processes, making mitochondrial impairment a likely culprit for the disturbed cellular physiology.
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro and Levaquin) plasma concentrations in patients after a single oral administration reach normally around 2 μg/ml and after intravenous injection 6 μg/ml and an up to a 20-fold accumulation of ciprofloxacin in tissue has been reported. We found the inhibition of mtDNA maintenance starting from 40 μg/ml ciprofloxacin, a concentration that might be well exceeded in patients with altered pharmacokinetics due to OBESITY, AGE, KIDNEY IMPAIRMENT or simultaneous CORTICOSTEROID USE, who experience the adverse side effects of fluoroquinolones most frequently.
The fact that Top2β (the enzyme affected by Cipro and Levaquin) exists in brain mitochondria at far higher levels compared to other tissues, suggesting a specific demand for mtDNA topology regulation in neural cells, could indicate that the tissue has a higher sensitivity against inhibition that should be investigated.
As a conclusion, the maintenance of topological homeostasis in mitochondria is required for gene expression and replication of mtDNA as it is for other genomes. Our results identified mtDNA as a key target for ciprofloxacin-induced adverse effects through inhibition of Top2. As fluoroquinolone antibiotics are widely used and effective drugs against a number of important bacterial pathogens, their dosage, systemic enrichment, and side-effects should be reviewed in the mitochondrial context, and their clinical use should be considered with great care.
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My husband was injured by Cipro years ago. The doctor who prescribed the Cipro was incredulous. The dysfunction and pain started within 12 hrs of the initial pill. Due to quick research I found a Facebook group that had articles posted by a Mayo Clinic group, in the mechanism of injury. They were focused on athletes. The article mentioned the chelation of magnesium and other minerals causing production of proteins similar to those in rheumatoid arthritis. The mito dysfunction. The massive oxidative stress. Someone in the group had found huge relief from vitamin C ivs. I found a local naturopathic dr who was willing to take this on, she even called Mayo and they had nothing further to offer. She recommended Sam great other things, Myers Cocktails, an IV recipe of magnesium, b vitamins, vitamin C. Like a miracle his clenched up muscles would relax in minutes. He repeated these for a couple of months. I believe that early intervention flooding the body with nutrients that were needed to offset the damage saved him from much worse problems.
I have a relative who has been struggling with similar long term muscle gut neurological stuff. We saw her a year ago and she literally wanted to die, so much pain, no answers as to what was wrong. He was immediately suspicious and asked if she’d taken Cipro. Of course she had, “who hasn’t?” Her disability looked so much like my husband he convinced her to try a few Myers Cocktail IVs. Hers had glutathione, my husbands did not. It was a game changer for her as well. She’s back to running a ministry and doing so much better. She’s not ready to stop them, and is now doing them every few weeks. We don’t know the exact cause of her issues. The nutrient ivs may not fix everything. But she’s come a long long way.
My husband tried to share his experience with the Myers cocktail antidote with the drug maker. They weren’t too interested. His doctor has seen a couple of other cases since. We told him how my husband got better quickly. I hope he paid attention.
Sorry, couple typos. The Nd recommended a few things to deal with the underlying issue (diverticulitis). But the real relief to his terrible pain bodywide tendinitis, clenched muscles and overwhelming muscle fatigue was relieved by the Myers Cocktail IVs. This allowed him to heal and resume working construction.
The article sheds light on the problem, but where r the recommended solutions?
I was poisoned by cipro & it affected my CNS & caused anxiety, depression.
I did organic, amino acids test & it showed a degree of mitochondrial disfunction & that I require 60 mg of CoQ10.
When I tried to supplement with it, it caused the same anxiety, depression & heart palpitations that cipro did ?!!
How can I fix this if I can’t have CoQ10?
What am I missing ?
I didn’t list solutions or fixes because the fixes are based on individual need, are not solely supplement based and I never recommend self-treatment. I hire on an electrician, plumber, accountant, mechanic and so on when needed and none of those issues are even remotely as complicated as the human body. With all due respect, why then would you feel confident to self-treat with merely a blog post as guidance? Utilize the doctor that did your OAT test to dig deeper into the issue. You need to understand, at this point, it’s not a supplement issue, it’s YOUR environment issue. Fix your environment and you will fix the problem. If you need additional help/view-point, I do offer a distance client program. Here is the link. https://www.advancedhealing.com/wp-content/uploads/Distance-Client-Program-revised-01-January-19.pdf